ICONEA NEWS

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ear ICONEA-NEMO Members, fellows, friends and supporters,

We are pleased to inform you that we are now hosted at the FACULTY OF ORIENTAL STUDIES at the University of Oxford, affiliated to the ARAM SOCIETY FOR SYRO-MESOPOTAMIAN STUDIES founded by Dr. Shafiq Abouzayd. Our seminars and conferences will be held, principally at the Faculty. ICONEA-NEMO retains its affiliations with other institutions such as the Sorbonne in Paris, Harvard in the USA, AUB in Beirut, and at the Institute of Musical Research of the University of London and other institutions.

ICONEWLOGO

Our new coordinates are now: ARAM – ICONEA – NEMO – UK, FACULTY OF ORIENTAL STUDIES, University of Oxford, Pusey Lane, Oxford OX1 2LE – UK

Tel: +44 20 7751 5770; Mobile: +44 07930 150 600

rdumbrill@iconea.org; www.iconea.org

All postal mail to be addressed to: Richard Dumbrill 10 Tadema Road, LONDON SW10 0NU – UK

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Illo Humphrey – Ph. D. | HDR | was elected the 28th of June, 2014, Fellow and Member of the Board of ICONEA-NEMO at the Faculty of Oriental Studies of the University of Oxford, Pusey Lane, Oxford OX1 2LE – UK: http://www.iconea.org/?cat=23.

ICONEA-NEMO are honoured by Illo Humphrey’s acceptance to be a Fellow and a Member of our research groups. Dr. Illo Humphrey, Mediaevalist | Musicologist | Proto-Philologist, earned, on the 23rd of June 2014, at the University of Paris X-Nanterre (since 2007: Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense), his post Doctoral Habilitation Degree to conduct Graduate, Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Research, under the Direction of Professor Iegor Reznikoff. The Defense Jury was composed of Pr. Dr. Frédéric Billiet (Université Paris IV-Sorbonne); Pr. Dr. Richard J. Dumbrill (University of London); Pr. Dr. Maurice Sachot (Université Marc Bloch-Strasbourg); Pr. Dr. Iégor Reznikoff (Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense); Pr. Dr. Fabio Troncarelli (Università degli Studi della Tuscia-Viterbo); Pr. Dr. Étienne Wolff (Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense); the Pre-Rapporteurs were: Pr. Dr. Richard J. Dumbrill (University of London), Dr. James Grier (University of Western Ontario), Pr. Dr. Massimo Privitera (Università degli Studi di Palermo).

Dr. Humphrey’s Habilitation degree was unanimously approved by all members of the jury who all recognized Illo Humphrey’s mastery of Boethius, of Ancient and Mediaeval Musicology, of Proto-Philology (i. e. ecdotic sciences including: the study of main texts, glosses, punctuation signs, notae sententiarum, that is to say diacritical cross-reference and omission signs, etc.), Latin Stenography (i. e. Tironian Notes), palaeography, codicology, etc.

Dr. Humphrey’s Habilitation thesis, based on fundamental research exploring the influence of the philosophy of numbers and proportions (ἡ toῦ riqmoὺ osίa: Platon, Timaios¶ 35-36  |  substantia numeri: Boethius, De arithmetica I,2) and the philosophy of musical intervals and musical sound (ϕθόγγος, -ου: Platon, Timaios¶ 80 | phthongos: Boethius, De musica I, 8) on the genesis of consciousness (τῆς ψυχῆς γένεσις: Platon, Timaios¶ 35-36 |animæ  generatio| anima mundi: Boethius, De arithmetica II,2 | Boethius De musica I, 1) and on the Cognitive Process in general (gnώmh|cognitio) from Plato to Boethius, was entitled in French:

Autour de Boèce: Genèse musicale et arithmétique de l’âme

Title in English:

On Boethius: The Genesis of the Soul-Consciousness, its musical and mathematical Implications

Title in German:

Über Boethius: Die musikalische und mathematische Entstehung der menschlichen Seele

 

 

Illo

Dr Illo Humphrey, HDR

ICONEA 2013 a conference of excellence

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Theodora Psychoyou and Christophe Cordier

Theodora Psychoyou and Christophe Cordier

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Richard Heath

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Irving Finkel

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Allan Prosser

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Theo Krispijn

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Nick Stylianou

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Piotr Michalowski

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Bruno de Florence

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Leon Criskmore

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Julia Evans and Bruno de Florence

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Richard Dumbrill

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Theo, Leon, Irving, Richard and Piotr

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Theodora Psychoyou and Christophe Cordier

Theodora Psychoyou and Christophe Cordier

ICONEA 2013

Featured

ICONEA 2013

4, 5 and 6 December, Senate House

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

Malet street, LONDON WC1E 7HU

Emergency phone number: 07930 150 600 - email: rdumbrill@iconea.org

Wednesday December 4, 2013, Room 104

1400 Registration

1500 Speeches: Paul Archbold, director of the institute of musical research; Irving Finkel, rIchard Dumbrill, ICONEA

 1530 Richard Dumbrill

          The problematics of musical theory transmission under the obnubilation of political and religious interference: before and after Berossus.

1630 Coffee Break

1700 Irving Finkel

          Babylonian into Greek at the end of the First Millennium.

Thursday 5, Room 104

1000  Coffee

1030 Leon Crickmore

          In Chapter 9, ‘Plato’s Musical Trigonometry’, of his book The Pythagorean Plato, Ernest McClain proposes a highly imaginative musical interpretation of the cuneiform tablet Plimpton 322. Unfortunately, the author’s omission of the first column of the text severely undermines his case. This paper re-assesses the musicality of Plimpton 322 and explores its possible connection with the musical cuneiform tablet CBS 1766.

 1130 Bruno de Florence

          Revisiting Plato’s Symposium, looking at its structure and at the two épainos from Aristophanes and Socrates. I will then propose a phenomenology of what I call the ‘act of transmission’ from a semiotic standpoint, which will include references to Peirce, Freud and Lacan.

 1230 Discussion and lunch

 1400 Piotr Michalowski

          There is a small number of cuneiform texts from ancient Mesopotamia that mention musical matters. Chronologically, these clay tablets come from different periods, spanning more than a millennium of literary practice. In this paper I will attempt to evaluate the place of these texts in the Mesopotamian written tradition and to evaluate the levels of stasis and change over the years.

 1500 Nick Stylianou

           Where Tetrachords Meet: Changing Perspectives on Modulation. 

          The transmission of classical music theory through Western tradition has influenced several structural distinctions and their associated terminology, such as the genera of tetrachords (diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic), systems of combination (conjunct, disjunct) and the naming of the modes (Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, etc.). At the same time the Western tradition has blended various distinctions, for example the notion of authentic/plagal modality compared with major/minor tonality, and the subtle distinctions of microtonality compared with the flexibility of equal temperament. My presentation provides with an organisational classification of scales highlighting the interaction between diatonic and chromatic genera of tetrachords and their conjunction and disjunction. This gives a perspective on the changing notions of the term ‘modulation’ within the Western tradition, and a potential bridge towards approaching concepts aspects of modality in non-Western traditions.

 1600 coffee break

 1630 Theo Krispijn

          2100 B.C. Break or Continuation in the Mesopotamian Musical Tradition? The earliest Mesopotamian texts with theoretical musical terminology come from the Old-Babylonian cities of Ur and Nippur  around 1800 B.C. The terminology is based on the handling of musical instruments. I will investigate to what extend musical instruments were newly introduced in the Ur III and Old-Babylonian periods or if they were used in earlier periods and consider if this terminology came from earlier. My sources are the iconography of musical instruments, Sumerian lexical and literary texts, especially the Shulgi hymns from the Early Dynastic to the Old-Babylonian period. Administrative documents from the Ur III period mentioning the production of musical instruments in workshops, the teaching of music, worship of divine instruments, and musical ensembles from Old Babylonian Mari.

 1730 Round Table

 Friday 5, Room G 35

1000 Coffee

 1030 Alan Prosser

          The history of the performance of the music of the Whirling Dervishes of Turkey are an interesting approach to a possible notation of their sacred compositions.  This presentation will attempt at answering  such questions as why did the Mevlevis not previously notate their music or did they consider that notation would not be sufficiently accurate.

1130 Richard Heath

          Transmission of Astronomical Musicality into Mythic Narrative.  

1230 Lunch Break

 1400  Theodora Psychoyou and Christophe Cordier

           This contribution focuses on the reception of the eight lines of Pindar’s first Pythic Ode with music notation published by Anthanasius Kircher in his 1650 Musurgia Universalis. He would have copied it from a manuscript found in a Sicilian Library. This fragment, now generally rejected as a fake or a pastiche, was considered, from Kircher till the twentieth century, as an important source of Ancient Greek Music although there were many doubts raised by scholars since the end of the eighteenth century (Charles Burney for instance), the First Pythic was regularly studied by many historians, especially August Böckh who, in his De Metris Pindari (1811), made of this fragment an authentically Greek musical document and a specimen of ‘Dorian music’. Other historians, from Jean-Jacques Rousseau to Maurice Emmanuel, quoted the First Pythic in their essays, before the composer André Jolivet, influenced by Emmanuel, used it in his score Iphigénie à Delphes in 1943. Thus we intend to show how scholars and musicians, in a rational, scientific way, imagined Ancient Greece and recreated ‘Greek music’ on the basis of philological data considered as ‘genuine’ during three centuries.

 1500 Round table and conclusions.

 1800 Drinks

 Fees: £75 and £45 for concessions.

Click on this link for registration form.

For local hotels, please click on this link.

 For direction to Senate House, University of London, click on this link.

Click on this link for more information on ICONEA 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ICONEA 2012

AEROPHONES IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST, EGYPT AND THE MEDITERRANEAN

NOVEMBER 22, 23 and 24, 2012

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

Senate House

Chancellor’s Hall

Malet Street
London WC1E 7HU

This conference will welcome contributions in all aspects of the aerophone instrumental category: History, iconography, typology, organology, philology, etc.

There is no limitation as to the length of contributions, within reason (not more than one hour).

We are delighted to announce that this conference will be fully equipped with ‘up to date’ audio visual technology.

The fees are £75 for delegates and £45 for concessions for the three days. £30 per day, and £15 per day for concessions. A link will be provided for your registration and payment. This fee will include refreshments at breaks. Affordable meals can be taken at local restaurants.

For local hotels, please click on this link.

Please, send your abstracts as soon as possible to rdumbrill@iconea.org

Click on this link for your registration form

mail to: rdumbrill@iconea.org for all other matters or phone me on +447930150600

 For direction to Senate House, University of London, click on this link.

Click on this link for more information on ICONEA 

Programme

Thursday 22

1400: Registration

1430: Speeches: Paul Archbold, Irving Finkel and Richard Dumbrill

Chair: Irving Finkel

1445: Dumbrill

When is a pipe not a pipe?

I shall investigate so-called pipes, flutes, etc., from Neanderthalians, Cro-Magnons, etc. and up to to the literate Ancient Mesopotamians and later Mediterraneans.

1545: Tea/coffee Break

1615: Nicholas Stylianou

Diagrams, Cyclic Orderings and Aristoxenian Synthesis

Despite difficulties surrounding the authenticity of writings on classical Greek music theory they have nonetheless been highly influential in subsequent theoretical developments. The broad polarisation of the domain into the Pythagorean and Aristoxenian traditions reflects the tension between their respective numerological and phenomenological approaches to music theory. Between these extremes Aristoxenus identifies the Harmonicists, commending them for their interest in musical reality whilst criticising their grasp of musical logic. Written some six centuries later, Claudius Ptolemy’s Harmonics also stands out in attempting to reconcile reasoning and perception.
This paper employs contemporary diagrammatic representations of the various tetrachord species, as catalogued by Ptolemy, which form the building blocks of classical Greek musical structure. Particular attention is given to Aristoxenian criticisms of the Harmonicists’ lack of attention to musical synthesis and consecution, specifically the katapyknosis (καταπύκνωσις) or close-packing of their diagrams and their use of cyclic orderings limited to a single genus in the range of an octave.  It is hoped that the materials from this study may form the basis of a systematic framework against which these classical Greek music-theoretical constructs may be better understood.

1715 – 1800: Round table

Friday 23

Chair: Myriam Marcetteau

1000: Max Stern

Shofar: Sound, Shape and Symbol.

The shofar has always been considered a magical instrument associated with the revelation of God’s voice at Mount Sinai. Later, Joshua brought down the walls of Jericho with shofar blasts – in the ancient world, sound was known to influence matter. The shofar is the oldest surviving instrument still used in Jewish ritual. Its sound, shape, and symbolism are integral to the High Holiday Season. This lecture-demonstration exhibits a variety of shofar types and discusses their origins from animal to instrument through visual aids. It demonstrates the traditional shofar blast and deals with historical and symbolical issues aroused by it strident sonority. It concludes with a DVD presentation of the shofar as an artistic instrument, integrated into a contemporary biblical work by the author.

1100: Tea Break

 1130 : Malcolm Miller:

The music of the Shofar: ancient symbols, modern meanings.

The Shofar discussed in biblical and post-biblical literature, is associated with a rich nexus of metaphorical symbolism, which has evolved over the course of time, and includes such concepts as supernatural power, joy, freedom, victory, deliverance, national identity, moral virtue, repentance, and social justice. While modern definitions have focused on the instrument’s signalling, ‘non-musical’ character, there is evidence already in the ancient writings of its ‘musical’ function, whose potential to evoke a profound aesthetic response has led to multiple interpretations of its meanings. Composers in 20th-21st centuries have incorporated the shofar into their works as a powerfully eloquent musical resource, from Elgar’s The Apostles premiered in October 1903 to Jörg Widmann’s opera ‘Babylon’ premiered at the Munich Opera just a few weeks ago in October 2012. It is the purpose of this presentation to discuss these more recent uses of the shofar and the way composers interpret the shofar’s ancient symbolism in a contemporary context, thereby highlighting both its ceremonial/religious, and its musical/aesthetic qualities.

1230 : Lunch Break

Chair : Barnaby Brown

1400 : Bruno de Florence

Shofar, Totemism and Voice: a Freudian-Lacanian Approach

From a commentary by Jacques Lacan on a text by Theodor Reik, I shall attempt to outline how we can consider musical practices as incarnated thinking. Borrowing from the notions of perception (Merleau-Ponty), jouissance (Lacan) and libido (Freud), I shall propose a model of musical performance and its listening as a continuous path along a multidimensional Moebius strip, structured by the enigma of the real of the body. Shofar….

1600: Tea/coffee Break

1630: Myriam Marcetteau:

Wind instruments from the ancient near East to the Greco-Roman period.

This presentation will investigate the evolution of two types of aeropohones from the Ancient Near East to the Greco-Roman period. I will focus on iconographic, philological, historical and sociological clues, for evidence of their affiliation. Some sources are easily traceable, such as the link  between the Mesopotamian hierodulae  and the female players of the abub-instrument. Some others, even though the affiliation is more hypothetical, are worth researching: I will attempt at giving possible origins for the ancient oriental roots of the qarnu and of the tibia/aulos.

1730 – 1800: Round table

Saturday 24

Chair: Richard Dumbrill

1000: Alan Prosser with the participation of Tansy Honey:

The organology, musicology, theory and spirituality of the ney

The construction which has remained the same for at least 800 years, as shown from extant examples in the museums in Konya. I will describe the type of reed used, where they are found; their treatment and preparation; the making of the ney; its playing; its pitch range and the reason for having a pitch set of 34 within an octave. I will further discuss the Pythagorean and Sufi use of Makams for a deeper musical experience; how the intervals make it possible to assist with this process and give examples. I will discuss the possible source of makam construction extracted from the Ney and micro-tonalism, with examples.

1130: Peter Strauven/Jan M.F. Van Reeth:

The Organ on the Mosaic of the Musicians from Maryamin at the Museum of Hama, Syria.

The mosaic (end of 4th c. AD) found in 1960 in the village of Maryamin (Syria) is one of the most important iconographic sources discovered in the last decades. Not only the high quality of craftsmanship makes this mosaic an essential object in art history: it is also the unusual theme depicted here that deserves closer examination. The emblem of the mosaic portrays with rare precision a musical scene in real-life format: six female musicians and two boys are playing music in a concert setting, on a stage. One of the instruments used in this concert is a pneumatic organ. Illustrations of pneumatic organs in their early history are very rare (in contrast to the more popular hydraulis), but what is more: given the great quality of the mosaic, the level of detail and the preciseness of what is represented, this picture of the organ can be considered as exceptionally accurate.  In this way, the mosaic of Maryamin allows us to analyse this organ from different points of view. Since it is an essential source to our understanding of the construction of pneumatic organs in late antiquity, we will point to organological details (such as the bellows of the wind supply system) not only because these technical aspects made it possible to prove earlier hypotheses, but also because such construction particularities in the instrument betray several influences, which are also reflected in other details of the concert scene. These influences run parallel with our deductions from contemporary literary sources, allowing us to put forward some hypotheses concerning the possible origin of the pneumatic organ and the different contexts in which the eastern pneumatic organs were used.

1300: Lunch Break

1400:  Barnaby Brown

Problems playing a modern reproduction of the silver pipes of Ur.

1530 Tea/coffee Break

1600: Concert lecture

Omar Bashir and the Bashir school of ‘ud in Baghdad and beyond.

Munir Bashir who died in 1997 was one of the most famous Iraqi ‘udists in the Middle-East during the 20th century and a recognised master of the Arabian maqam.

Bashir’s music is characterised by a unique style of improvisation which is the consequence of his his study of Indian and European music in addition to Oriental forms.

Omar Bashir  was born in 1970 in Hungary.

At the age of five, he left Hungary with his parents to live in Iraq, where he was educated. The ‘ud he plays in performance is in the same he had as a child.

At the age of seven Omar studied at the Baghdad Music and Ballet School where he became a teacher in his late teens. He created his own ensemble of twenty-four musicians, specialising in classical Iraqi music. Omar’s performed with his father from the age of thirteen.

Concert

The death of his father marked a turning point in his musical career. He won many awards and on the first Anniversary of 9/11 was invited to play in the USA to raise funds for the Iraqi Symphony Orchestra which had been flown over on that occasion. Omar is certainly the most innovative ‘udist to date.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The lawha of Al-Wanshini

A presentation by Rihard Dumbrill on The Lawha of al-Wanshini, a controversial manuscript which offers an alternative origin for musical terms which had been up to now attributed to Western scholarship. This text dates from the late seventeenth, early eighteenth century, relating of works of early Arabian writers of music theory, notably al-Kindi and Ziryab, from the ninth centuries onward.

NEMO I Near Eastern Musicology Online

To purchase a pdf copy of NEMO I for the sum of £20.00, click on the Paypal icon above:Your pdf copy will be sent to your email address after receipt of payment. If you do not receive your copy please inform the administrator at rdumbrill@iconea.orgNEMO I

Table of contents:

Erik MARCHAND : “Une musique modale de tradition populaire en Occident – Tribune”, NEMO-Online 1 1 |2012-11| p. 5–10; François PICARD : “Back to modality. Musical Modes Revisited”, NEMO-Online 1 1 |2012-11| p. 11–18;  Markos SKOULIOS : “Modern theory and notation of Byzantine chanting tradition – A Near Eastern musicological perspective”, NEMO-Online 1 1 |2012-11| p. 19–38;  Jacob OLLEY : “Modal diversity in early Ottoman music – The case of makâm Sabâ”, NEMO-Online 1 1 |2012-11| p. 39–54;     Rosy AZAR BEYHOM : “La modalité écrite. Un exemple avec Mīkhāʾīl Mashāqa au XIXe siècle”, NEMO-Online 1 1 |2012-11| p. 55–66;  Amine BEYHOM : “Kashf al-Asrār an Karkarat al-Aḥbār fī Taʾwīl al-Adwār” NEMO-Online 1 1 |2012-11| p. 67–88; Richard DUMBRILL : “Modus Vivendi”, NEMO-Online 1 1 |2012-11| p. 89–116.

 

Analogy between a Urukean Harp and the organ of Corti

By: Richard Dumbrill

The most ancient harps from Uruk, or from the fourth millennium BC Uruk period, have all in common their extreme structural simplicity. It is not surprising that no extant exemplars have survived since these instruments were made from organic matter, wood and gut, essentially, the fastest to decompose. However, the iconography has provided with sufficient evidence, if not to attest of a specific Urukean style, but at least to establish that it was at Uruk that these instruments developed from their prehistoric form: – the implement/instrument bow-harps which are still to these days in practice with various African ethnical groups, to the Urukean types known from the iconography. The instrument below (of unknown provenance) is already an improved version of the prehistoric model where pitches were produced by pressure and relaxation of the bow itself with the buccal cavity used as resonator. With this improved form, the speaking-length of the string is defined by an implement, a knife nowadays, associated with variations of the volume of the player’s buccal cavity. (see below)

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Primitive African bow-harp

The oldest prehistoric form of the bow-harp may stem from Çatal Hüyük in Turkey and would date from around 6000 BC. The conjectural identification of this implement as a bow-harp mainly rests on its size which is far too small for hunting purposes, on the absence of arrows and that the individuals represented dance among fallow deer and wear rather peculiar costumes more festive than hunting!

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Festive scene from Çatal Hüyük with evidence of musical bow-harps

Progressively harps would have evolved as the buccal cavity acting as resonator was replaced by a coloquinth, or a suitably shaped calabash, as seen below, through which the bow would be inserted or attached in order to best exercise its purpose.

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Ugubhu bow-harp with calabash resonator

It is very probable that it were the Urukeans who  replaced these crude resonators with more suitable sound-boxes as seen from the iconography and with pictograms as shown below.

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Extracted from P.Roi and T.Girard, La Theorie Sensorielle

 

It is certain that during the end of the fourth millennium harps would have been made from appropriate calabashes which even might have been forced into growing at the required shape, as Victorians used to place cucumbers in glass tubes so that they grew straight. The calabashes would be dried and processed as follows:

Urukean technique of early harp making with calabash, raw hide and gut strings. Drawings by Tristan Girard

Urukean technique of early harp making with calabash, raw hide and gut strings. Drawings by Tristan Girard

Then about two years ago, two French independent researchers, Philippe Roi and Tristan Girard, wrote to me with an idea which at first appeared to be rather eccentric and consisted in establishing an analogy between the early Urukean harp and the organ of Corti of the inner ear. They had previously worked with a leading expert, Doctor Michel Leibovici, cell and molecular biologist at Paris VI, researcher at the CNRS, working at the Cochin Institute, and Professor Paul Avan, Director of the Neuro-sensory biochemical Laboratory.  We undertook research over one year, a rare occurrence where specialists of such different fields associate. It was discovered that the early harp would have been conceptualised from biological mechanisms on which rests our own hearing system. The major question arising was how would this have been possible some 6000 years ago in the absence of any scientific materials. Such analogies were carried out with other inventions numbering seven, altogether: the ard, the brick mould, writing, accountancy, the harp, the vertical loom and cone images.  It was discovered that all of these inventions reproduced biological mechanisms allowing our sensorial organs to perceive our environment and sending this information to the brain.

Philippe Roi and Tristan Girard have spent almost twenty years researching these phenomena and concluded that there exists sensorial analogies establishing logical links between Urukean inventions and our senses. The first part of their work is now published and offers a fascinating introspection in a field which had never been approached in this manner before. The English version will be shortly available.

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Book available from: http://www.amazon.com/La-Th%C3%A9orie-Sensorielle-Analogies-Sensorielles/dp/1622874854/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1389800971&sr=8-1&keywords=la+theorie+sensorielle

 

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Tristan Girard, Philippe Roi and Michel Leibovici

Below, Richard Dumbrill and one of his Urukean harp reconstructions.

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